History of US & Haiti
The United States
has a long history of interference and interaction with the country of Haiti. Most of these involvements were in response to the unstable government that has persisted throughout Haiti's history. At times, the United States has been a full occupying power. At other times, it was simply leading a peacekeeping force. Either way, the U.S. has a strong influence over the country into the 21st century.
During the turn of the 20th century, Haiti came under heavy influence from the German government. With the outbreak of World War I, the United States was concerned over the possibility of American interests being compromised. 330 U.S. Marines invaded the capital, Port-au-Prince, on July 28, 1915.
Occupation of Haiti by the United States caused extreme unrest during the first few years. In 1918, 40,000 rebels called Cacos attacked the country's guard and Marine reinforcements. The rebellion was eventually put down at the cost of 2,000 Haitian lives.
The U.S. began to withdraw from Haiti in 1932 under President Hoover. The following year, President Roosevelt established a disengagement agreement. August 15, 1934 saw the final contingent of Marines depart.
Operation Uphold Democracy
In 1991, President Jean-Bertrand Aristide was overthrown by a military coup. For the next two years, 41,342 Haitians fled to the United States. Former President Jimmy Carter was deployed to diplomatically reinstate Aristide. U.S. troops arrived in late 1994 and oversaw the transition.
The Aristide regime was overthrown in February 2004. Civil war and strife followed over the next few months. Finally, the U.S. led a peacekeeping force of 7,000 into the country to install President Boniface Alexandre.
Jason lives and works out of Minneapolis. After 11 years of professional writing, he is the author of four books, two movies and a play as well as numerous articles for Scientific American, The History Channel, City Pages and The Onion. Jason is a graduate of the film school at USC.
US Air Force